Fri. Jun 14th, 2024

Gamers, are you ready to take your gaming experience to the next level? With the rise of powerful PCs and advanced gaming technology, the world of PC gaming has never been more exciting. But with so many games to choose from, how do you know which ones are worth your time? Fear not, fellow gamers! We’ve done the research and have put together a list of the best PC games to play in 2023. From fast-paced action to immersive storytelling, these games will transport you to new worlds and keep you on the edge of your seat. So, let’s get started and unleash the ultimate gaming experience!

A Thrilling Journey through the World of PC Gaming

Navigating the Ocean of PC Games: A Comprehensive Overview

The Evolution of PC Gaming

The history of PC gaming can be traced back to the early 1970s when the first video games were developed for personal computers. Over the years, the industry has witnessed remarkable growth and evolution, with advancements in technology paving the way for more immersive and sophisticated gaming experiences.

The 1980s and 1990s saw the rise of popular games like Space Invaders, Tetris, and Doom, which revolutionized the gaming landscape and set the stage for future innovations. With the introduction of 3D graphics and more complex gameplay mechanics, PC games continued to evolve and mature, ultimately leading to the emergence of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) and other genres that would become staples of the industry.

The Diverse Genres of PC Games

PC gaming encompasses a vast array of genres, each offering a unique gaming experience tailored to different preferences and playstyles. Some of the most popular genres include:

  • Action and Adventure: These games often feature fast-paced gameplay, engaging storylines, and exciting combat mechanics. Examples include Assassin’s Creed, The Witcher, and The Last of Us.
  • Strategy and Simulation: These games focus on decision-making, resource management, and strategic planning. Examples include Civilization, Stardew Valley, and Elite Dangerous.
  • Role-Playing Games (RPGs): RPGs offer players the opportunity to assume the role of a character, embarking on quests, and interacting with other players or non-playable characters (NPCs). Examples include Skyrim, World of Warcraft, and Final Fantasy.
  • Sports and Racing: These games provide realistic or arcade-style simulations of various sports and racing disciplines. Examples include FIFA, Forza Motorsport, and NBA 2K.
  • First-Person Shooters (FPS): FPS games are characterized by their intense combat scenarios and first-person perspective. Examples include Call of Duty, Battlefield, and Counter-Strike.

The Impact of PC Gaming on the Gaming Industry

PC gaming has had a profound impact on the gaming industry, influencing the development of console games and shaping the expectations of gamers worldwide. With its focus on cutting-edge technology, PC gaming has been at the forefront of innovation, driving advancements in graphics, sound, and game mechanics.

Furthermore, the PC gaming platform has fostered a vibrant and passionate community of gamers, content creators, and developers, contributing to the growth and diversification of the gaming ecosystem. The rise of digital distribution platforms like Steam and GOG.com has made it easier than ever for gamers to access and enjoy PC games, further solidifying the platform’s position as a cornerstone of the gaming industry.

The Top 10 Must-Play PC Games of 2023

Cyberpunk 2077

Cyberpunk 2077 is an upcoming open-world, action-adventure video game developed by CD Projekt Red. Set in a dystopian world in the year 2077, the game follows the story of a mercenary named V who is equipped with cybernetic enhancements and is on a mission to rise to the top of the criminal underworld. With its impressive graphics, immersive storyline, and dynamic combat system, Cyberpunk 2077 promises to be one of the most anticipated games of 2023.

Call of Duty: Modern Warfare

Call of Duty: Modern Warfare is a first-person shooter game developed by Infinity Ward. The game features a multiplayer mode, where players can team up with friends or compete against other players from around the world. The game’s campaign mode follows a group of elite soldiers as they battle terrorists in various locations around the globe. With its fast-paced gameplay, intense action, and stunning graphics, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare is a must-play game for fans of the genre.

Assassin’s Creed Valhalla

Assassin’s Creed Valhalla is an action-adventure game developed by Ubisoft Montreal. Set in the year 873 AD, the game follows the story of Eivor, a Viking warrior, as they embark on a quest to establish a new settlement in England. Players can explore a vast open world, engage in combat, and complete various quests and missions. With its stunning visuals, engaging storyline, and immersive gameplay, Assassin’s Creed Valhalla is a must-play game for fans of the series and newcomers alike.

Grand Theft Auto V

Grand Theft Auto V is an open-world action-adventure game developed by Rockstar Games. The game takes place in the fictional city of Los Santos and follows the stories of three main characters: Michael, Franklin, and Trevor. Players can explore the city, engage in various activities such as driving, shooting, and racing, and complete missions to progress through the game’s story. With its expansive world, engaging storyline, and a range of activities to participate in, Grand Theft Auto V is a must-play game for fans of the series and anyone looking for an immersive gaming experience.

Minecraft

Minecraft is a sandbox video game developed by Mojang Studios. The game allows players to build and explore various worlds made of blocks. Players can create their own worlds, gather resources, craft weapons and tools, and battle various creatures. With its endless possibilities and creative gameplay, Minecraft is a must-play game for players of all ages.

Fortnite

Fortnite is a battle royale game developed by Epic Games. The game is known for its unique gameplay mechanics, such as building structures and scavenging for weapons and resources. Players can team up with friends or compete against other players in a battle to be the last one standing. With its popularity, frequent updates, and engaging gameplay, Fortnite is a must-play game for anyone interested in the battle royale genre.

Rocket League

Rocket League is a sports video game developed by Psyonix. The game combines elements of soccer and vehicular combat, with players controlling cars that can jump, boost, and hit a ball into the opponent’s goal. With its fast-paced gameplay, competitive nature, and esports scene, Rocket League is a must-play game for anyone interested in sports games or multiplayer gaming.

The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt

The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt is an open-world action role-playing game developed by CD Projekt Red. The game follows the story of Geralt of Rivia, a monster hunter, as he navigates a world full of political intrigue, magic, and monsters. With its immersive storyline, engaging characters, and vast open world, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt is a must-play game for fans of the series and anyone looking for a deep, immersive gaming experience.

Divinity: Original Sin 2

Divinity: Original Sin 2 is a role-playing game developed by Larian Studios. The game features a deep, complex storyline, challenging combat, and a vast world to explore. Players can create their own characters, customize their abilities and skills, and engage in turn-based combat. With its deep

Why These Games Are Worth Your Time

When it comes to PC gaming, there are a plethora of games to choose from. However, not all games are worth your time. The following games are worth your time due to several reasons:

Engaging storylines

One of the reasons these games are worth your time is due to their engaging storylines. These games have intricate plots that will keep you on the edge of your seat, eager to see what happens next. The storylines are well-crafted and will leave you wanting more. Whether it’s a sci-fi adventure or a fantasy epic, these games have stories that will captivate you.

Impressive graphics and soundtracks

Another reason these games are worth your time is due to their impressive graphics and soundtracks. These games have stunning visuals that will blow your mind. The attention to detail is impressive, and the graphics are top-notch. The soundtracks are equally impressive, and they will transport you to the game’s world. You will feel like you are part of the game, and the music will enhance your gaming experience.

Challenging gameplay mechanics

These games are also worth your time due to their challenging gameplay mechanics. They are not just mindless button-mashing affairs. These games require skill, strategy, and patience. The gameplay mechanics are well-designed, and they will challenge you to improve your skills. Whether it’s a first-person shooter or a strategy game, these games will test your mettle.

Innovative features and mechanics

Another reason these games are worth your time is due to their innovative features and mechanics. These games are not just clones of other games. They have unique features and mechanics that set them apart from the rest. They are creative and innovative, and they will keep you guessing. You will never get bored with these games, as they constantly introduce new mechanics and features.

Active gaming communities

Lastly, these games are worth your time due to their active gaming communities. These games have large communities of players who are passionate about the game. You can join online forums, chat with other players, and even compete in tournaments. The communities are friendly and welcoming, and they will make you feel like you are part of something bigger. You will never feel alone when playing these games, as there are always other players to talk to and play with.

Exploring the Best PC Games by Genre

Key takeaway: PC gaming has come a long way since the early 1990s, with advancements in technology allowing for more immersive and sophisticated gaming experiences. PC gaming encompasses a vast array of genres, each offering a unique gaming experience tailored to different preferences and playstyles. The top 10 must-play PC games of 2023 include Cyberpunk 2077, Call of Duty: Modern Warfare, Assassin’s Creed Valhalla, Doom Eternal, Shadow of the Colossus, Batman: Arkham City, God of War, Final Fantasy VII Remake, and Devil May Cry 5. These games are worth your time due to their engaging storylines, impressive graphics and soundtracks, challenging gameplay mechanics, and innovative features and mechanics.

Action-Packed Adventures: The Top Action Games of 2023

  • God of War
    • Kratos, the protagonist, continues his journey as the God of War in this latest installment, which takes place in Norse mythology.
    • The game features stunning visuals, an engaging storyline, and epic battles that showcase Kratos’ powerful combat skills.
    • Players can expect to experience a blend of fast-paced action, puzzle-solving, and exploration, as they navigate through the breathtaking landscapes of Midgard, Asgard, and other realms.
  • Batman: Arkham City
    • Set in a sprawling open-world environment, Batman: Arkham City is an immersive action-adventure game that brings the Dark Knight’s iconic universe to life.
    • Players assume the role of the Caped Crusader, armed with an array of gadgets and martial arts skills, as they fight to save Gotham City from a cast of infamous villains.
    • The game boasts impressive voice acting, engaging side quests, and a captivating storyline that will keep players engaged from start to finish.
  • Doom Eternal
    • In Doom Eternal, players take on the role of the legendary Doom Slayer, who is on a mission to eliminate demonic forces that threaten the existence of humanity.
    • The game features fast-paced, first-person combat, and a variety of powerful weapons and abilities that allow players to decimate hordes of demons with ease.
    • With its intense action, stunning visuals, and immersive storyline, Doom Eternal is a must-play for fans of the franchise and newcomers alike.
  • Shadow of the Colossus
    • This classic action-adventure game follows the story of a young man named Wander, who embarks on a quest to defeat 16 colossal creatures in order to revive a maiden named Mono.
    • The game is known for its unique boss battles, breathtaking landscapes, and hauntingly beautiful soundtrack.
    • Players will be drawn into the game’s world, experiencing a sense of awe and wonder as they journey through the vast wilderness and confront each colossus.
  • Devil May Cry 5
    • In this latest installment of the Devil May Cry series, players control Nero, a demon hunter with a unique fighting style and a variety of weapons at his disposal.
    • The game features stunning visuals, fast-paced combat, and a thrilling storyline that follows Nero as he battles against a powerful demon king.
    • With its stylish characters, intense action, and challenging gameplay, Devil May Cry 5 is a must-play for fans of the series and action games in general.

Immersive Role-Playing Experiences: The Top RPGs of 2023

The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim

  • Released in 2011, Skyrim continues to captivate gamers with its expansive open-world and immersive storytelling.
  • Set in the fictional province of Skyrim, players embark on a quest to defeat the dragon king, battling fierce dragons and exploring the land’s rugged terrain.
  • With a vast array of characters, quests, and secrets to discover, Skyrim offers endless hours of gameplay and is a must-play for any RPG fan.

Final Fantasy VII Remake

  • The highly anticipated remake of the classic Final Fantasy VII, this game brings the beloved story to life with stunning visuals and an updated combat system.
  • Players follow the journey of Cloud Strife and his team as they battle against the evil Shinra Corporation and save the planet from destruction.
  • With a focus on character development and epic boss battles, Final Fantasy VII Remake is a must-play for fans of the series and newcomers alike.

Persona 5 Royal

  • A highly acclaimed JRPG, Persona 5 Royal expands on the original game with new characters, storylines, and gameplay features.
  • Players take on the role of a high school student who moonlights as a phantom thief, using their Persona abilities to defeat enemies and solve puzzles.
  • With a charming cast of characters and a deep, engaging story, Persona 5 Royal is a standout RPG that offers a unique and memorable experience.

  • Set in a vast, open-world, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt follows the journey of Geralt of Rivia, a monster hunter with supernatural abilities.

  • Players explore the game’s beautifully crafted environments, completing quests and battling creatures in a brutal, realistic combat system.
  • With a complex storyline and well-developed characters, The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt is a must-play for fans of the series and those looking for a challenging RPG experience.

  • Set in a cyberpunk-inspired world, Cyberpunk 2077 follows the story of a mercenary outlaw as they navigate the gritty streets of Night City.

  • Players can customize their character’s appearance and abilities, using a variety of weapons and cybernetic enhancements to overcome obstacles and complete missions.
  • *With a massive open-world to explore and a deep, branching storyline, Cyberpunk 2077 is a highly anticipated RPG that promises to deliver an unforgettable gaming experience in 2023.

Strategic Masterminds: The Top Strategy Games of 2023

  • Civilization VI
    • Developed by Firaxis Games, Civilization VI is a turn-based strategy game that has players building and managing their own civilizations from the ancient era to the modern age.
    • The game features a variety of different cultures and leaders to choose from, each with their own unique abilities and playstyles.
    • With its deep strategic gameplay and vast array of content, Civilization VI is a must-play for any strategy game fan.
  • Stellaris
    • Stellaris is a science fiction-themed grand strategy game developed by Paradox Development Studio.
    • Players are tasked with building and managing their own interstellar empire, exploring the galaxy, and engaging in diplomacy and warfare with other factions.
    • With its vast procedurally generated galaxy and deep strategic gameplay, Stellaris offers endless replayability and a truly immersive experience.
  • XCOM 2
    • XCOM 2 is a turn-based tactical game developed by Firaxis Games.
    • Players take on the role of the commander of a military organization tasked with defending Earth from an alien invasion.
    • With its challenging gameplay and high replayability, XCOM 2 is a must-play for fans of the genre.
  • Age of Empires III: Definitive Edition
    • Age of Empires III: Definitive Edition is a real-time strategy game developed by Relic Entertainment.
    • Players explore and colonize new lands, build and manage their own civilizations, and engage in battles with other factions.
    • With its updated graphics and gameplay, Age of Empires III: Definitive Edition is a great entry point for new players and a welcome update for veterans.
  • Into the Breach
    • Into the Breach is a science fiction-themed turn-based strategy game developed by Subset Games.
    • Players control a team of mechs tasked with defending a city from a series of disasters caused by a mysterious alien invasion.
    • With its deep strategic gameplay and unique time travel mechanics, Into the Breach offers a fresh take on the genre and is a must-play for any strategy game fan.

Thrilling Sports and Racing Simulations: The Top Sports and Racing Games of 2023

FIFA 21

  • A highly anticipated installment in the popular FIFA series, FIFA 21 brings players the most realistic and immersive football experience yet.
  • With improved graphics, enhanced gameplay mechanics, and a vast array of new features, FIFA 21 promises to provide football fans with hours of entertainment.
  • Whether you prefer to play solo or with friends, FIFA 21 has something for everyone, making it a must-play game for sports enthusiasts in 2023.

NBA 2K21

  • The NBA 2K series continues to be a fan favorite, with NBA 2K21 delivering an unparalleled basketball gaming experience.
  • Featuring stunning graphics, realistic gameplay, and a huge roster of NBA players, NBA 2K21 offers players the chance to recreate iconic moments from the NBA or create their own.
  • With a range of game modes and online multiplayer options, NBA 2K21 is a top pick for basketball fans and gamers alike.

Forza Horizon 4

  • For racing game enthusiasts, Forza Horizon 4 is a must-play game in 2023.
  • Set in a virtualized version of the UK, players can race through beautiful landscapes, participate in thrilling events, and customize their cars to their heart’s content.
  • With hundreds of cars to choose from, a dynamic weather system, and an engaging storyline, Forza Horizon 4 is a must-play for anyone who loves fast cars and high-speed action.

Need for Speed Heat

  • For fans of fast cars and adrenaline-fueled racing, Need for Speed Heat is a top pick for 2023.
  • Players can race through the streets of a fictional city, participating in a range of events and challenges while trying to become the ultimate street racer.
  • With a variety of customization options, stunning graphics, and intense gameplay, Need for Speed Heat is a must-play for racing game enthusiasts.

WRC 9

  • For rally car fans, WRC 9 is a top pick for 2023.
  • Featuring stunning graphics, realistic gameplay, and a range of different rally cars, WRC 9 offers players the chance to experience the thrill of rally driving like never before.
  • With a range of different stages and challenges, WRC 9 is a must-play for anyone who loves the adrenaline-fueled world of rally racing.

Mind-Bending Puzzles and Logic Games: The Top Puzzle Games of 2023

  • Portal 2
    • Developed by Valve Corporation, Portal 2 is a first-person puzzle-platformer game that offers an immersive and challenging experience for players.
    • The game features a unique gameplay mechanic where players use a “portal gun” to create portals between two points, allowing them to traverse obstacles and solve puzzles.
    • With its clever puzzles, witty humor, and engaging storyline, Portal 2 is a must-play game for puzzle game enthusiasts.
  • The Talos Principle
    • The Talos Principle is a first-person puzzle game developed by Croteam and Devolver Digital.
    • The game presents players with a series of increasingly complex puzzles that require logical thinking and problem-solving skills.
    • The game’s storyline is equally intriguing, exploring philosophical themes such as the nature of existence and the relationship between humans and machines.
    • With its immersive gameplay and thought-provoking narrative, The Talos Principle is a top pick for puzzle game fans.
  • Crypt of the NecroDancer
    • Crypt of the NecroDancer is a rhythm-based dungeon crawler game developed by Brace Yourself Games.
    • The game combines elements of puzzle-solving and rhythm-based gameplay, requiring players to navigate through a procedurally generated dungeon while avoiding enemies and traps.
    • The game’s soundtrack is also a standout feature, with its catchy tunes and pulsating beats adding to the game’s overall excitement.
    • With its unique gameplay mechanics and engaging soundtrack, Crypt of the NecroDancer is a must-play game for puzzle and rhythm game fans alike.
  • Monument Valley 2
    • Developed by ustwo games, Monument Valley 2 is a visually stunning puzzle game that offers a unique and immersive gaming experience.
    • The game features a series of optical illusions and mind-bending puzzles that require players to manipulate the game’s environment to progress through the levels.
    • The game’s graphics are truly breathtaking, with its surreal landscapes and geometric structures offering a feast for the eyes.
    • With its innovative gameplay mechanics and beautiful visuals, Monument Valley 2 is a top pick for puzzle game enthusiasts.
  • Gris
    • Gris is a visually stunning puzzle-platformer game developed by Nomada Studio.
    • The game follows the story of a young girl named Gris, who embarks on a journey of self-discovery and healing after experiencing a great loss.
    • The game’s puzzles are seamlessly integrated into the game’s narrative, with players using Gris’s unique abilities to progress through the game’s levels.
    • The game’s soundtrack is also a standout feature, with its hauntingly beautiful melodies and emotive score adding to the game’s overall emotional impact.
    • With its poignant storyline and beautiful visuals, Gris is a must-play game for puzzle game fans who appreciate a game that offers more than just mindless puzzles.

Join the Gaming Community and Get Ready for an Unforgettable Experience

Tips for Enhancing Your Gaming Experience

Optimizing your gaming setup

As a dedicated gamer, it’s crucial to optimize your gaming setup for an immersive and enjoyable experience. Here are some essential tips to enhance your gaming experience:

  • Upgrade your hardware: Ensure that your computer is equipped with the latest hardware to run the most demanding games smoothly. Consider upgrading your CPU, GPU, and RAM for optimal performance.
  • Customize your settings: Adjust your game settings to suit your preferences, such as graphics quality, resolution, and frame rate. This will help you achieve the best possible gaming experience.
  • Invest in a good gaming mouse and keyboard: A high-quality gaming mouse and keyboard can significantly improve your gaming experience by providing precision and speed. Consider investing in a gaming mouse with customizable buttons and a keyboard with programmable keys.

Building a gaming community

Building a gaming community is an excellent way to enhance your gaming experience and make new friends. Here are some tips to help you build a gaming community:

  • Join online gaming forums: Participate in online gaming forums to connect with other gamers, share tips and strategies, and discuss the latest games.
  • Attend gaming events: Attend gaming events, such as conventions and tournaments, to meet other gamers and learn about the latest games and technology.
  • Use social media: Use social media platforms, such as Twitter and Facebook, to connect with other gamers and share your gaming experiences.

Exploring game mods and customizations

Game mods and customizations can significantly enhance your gaming experience by adding new features and gameplay elements. Here are some tips to help you explore game mods and customizations:

  • Search for mods online: Look for mods online, such as on Steam Workshop or Nexus Mods, to find mods created by the community.
  • Experiment with different mods: Try out different mods to find the ones that enhance your gaming experience the most.
  • Create your own mods: If you have the skills, create your own mods and share them with the community.

Engaging with game developers and publishers

Engaging with game developers and publishers can provide you with exclusive access to the latest games and technology. Here are some tips to help you engage with game developers and publishers:

  • Follow game developers and publishers on social media: Follow game developers and publishers on social media to stay up-to-date on the latest game releases and announcements.
  • Participate in beta testing: Participate in beta testing to get early access to new games and provide feedback to developers.
  • Attend game developer events: Attend game developer events, such as GDC and Gamescom, to meet developers and learn about the latest game development techniques.

Embracing the Future of PC Gaming

Emerging Trends in PC Gaming

The world of PC gaming is constantly evolving, and as we move further into the 21st century, we can expect to see a host of new trends emerge. Some of the most notable trends in PC gaming for 2023 include:

  • The continued rise of eSports and competitive gaming, with more and more games being designed with tournament play in mind.
  • The growing popularity of indie games, which offer unique and innovative gameplay experiences that are often overlooked by larger studios.
  • The increasing use of machine learning and artificial intelligence in game design, which has the potential to create more dynamic and unpredictable gameplay experiences.

The Impact of VR and AR on PC Gaming

Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies are poised to have a significant impact on the world of PC gaming in the coming years. These technologies offer the potential to create fully immersive gaming experiences that blur the line between reality and fantasy.

In 2023, we can expect to see more and more games being designed with VR and AR in mind, offering players the chance to experience their favorite games in new and exciting ways.

The Rise of Cloud Gaming

Cloud gaming is another trend that is set to transform the world of PC gaming in the coming years. This technology allows players to stream games directly to their PC or mobile device, eliminating the need for expensive hardware or lengthy downloads.

As cloud gaming technology continues to improve, we can expect to see more and more games being made available through this platform, offering players the chance to access a wider range of games than ever before.

The Future of Gaming Beyond 2023

As we look beyond 2023, it’s clear that the world of PC gaming is poised for even more exciting developments. With the rise of new technologies like VR and AR, the continued growth of eSports and competitive gaming, and the ongoing evolution of cloud gaming, the future of PC gaming is brighter than ever.

As the industry continues to grow and evolve, players can expect to see an ever-increasing range of games and experiences available to them, making the world of PC gaming an increasingly exciting and diverse place to be.

FAQs

1. What are the best PC games to play in 2023?

The best PC games to play in 2023 are subjective and depend on personal preferences. However, some popular choices include:
* “Cyberpunk 2077”
* “Death Stranding”
* “The Last of Us Part II”
* “Among Us”
* “Minecraft”
* “Grand Theft Auto V”
* “The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt”
* “Assassin’s Creed Valhalla”
* “Fortnite”
* “Call of Duty: Warzone”

2. Are there any free PC games that are worth playing?

Yes, there are many free PC games that are worth playing. Some popular choices include:
* “Apex Legends”
* “Paladins”
* “Warframe”
* “Smite”
* “League of Legends”
* “Dota 2”
* “Counter-Strike: Global Offensive”
* “Rainbow Six Siege”
* “Hearthstone”

3. What are the system requirements for playing PC games?

The system requirements for playing PC games vary depending on the game. However, generally, a PC with at least an Intel Core i5 processor, 8GB of RAM, and a dedicated graphics card with at least 2GB of VRAM should be able to run most games. For more demanding games, a more powerful CPU, more RAM, and a more powerful graphics card may be required.

4. Can I play PC games on a laptop?

Yes, you can play PC games on a laptop, but the experience may not be as good as playing on a desktop computer. Laptops typically have less powerful processors and graphics cards than desktop computers, which can impact the performance of the game. Additionally, laptops may have smaller screens and less comfortable keyboards, which can make playing games less enjoyable.

5. Are there any online communities for PC gamers?

Yes, there are many online communities for PC gamers. Some popular choices include:
* Reddit’s r/gaming community
* Discord servers for specific games or gaming communities
* Twitch, where many gamers stream their gameplay and interact with viewers
* Online forums for specific games or gaming communities
These communities provide a way for gamers to connect with others, share tips and strategies, and discuss the latest news and updates for their favorite games.

TOP 30 Games of All Time You Need To Play [2024 Edition]

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